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For example Carbon 14 has a half life of 5,730 years.

If a sample has 6.25 % of the amount of Carbon 14 present in a living sample then four half lives have passed since the sample died and stopped absorbing Carbon. Carbon 14 has a limited of approximately 50,000 years or less.

I understand how radioactive dating works, but something about it concerns me. If we have a rock and assume that it was 100% carbon-14 at formation, and we now measure it to be 25% carbon-14 and 75% nitrogen-14 (I know nitrogen is a gas, but bear with me), then we can calculate that the rock has been around long enough to pass through 2 half-lives (2 x 5,730 years = 11,460 years). If, in fact, the rock was 50% carbon-14 and 50% nitrogen-14 at its formation, then it would actually be only 5,730 years old (only half the originally calculated age).

This is because the amount and strength of cosmic radiation entering the earth's atmosphere has varied over time.Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, using known decay rates.The use of radiometric dating was first published in 1907 by Bertram Boltwood and is now the principal source of information about the absolute age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of the Earth itself, and can be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials.In the case of living organisms, there is a constant ratio of Carbon-14 to Carbon-12 in the environement, and this is because carbon-14 is constantly created anew by cosmic radiation impacting on nitrogen-14 (I can imagine there might be variations to take into account as historic cosmic ratiation levels would vary).Once a living thing dies, it cannot take up any fresh carbon-14, so the carbon-14 that is contained within its body will decay, and will not be renewed.Firstly, we don't use carbon dating for measuring the age of rocks; carbon dating would only be used for the remains of living matter (e.g. Other radioactive isotopes might be used for various other objects.When we date something based of radioactive decay, we rely on some mecahanism that sets the ratio of isotopes to some predetermined value.If 50% of the radioactive isotope is left one half life has passed.If only 25% of the radioactive isotope is left two half lives have passed.Part of the result of these collisions is the production of radiocarbon (C, pronounced "c fourteen"), carbon atoms which are chemically the same as stable carbon, but have two extra neutrons.Radiocarbon is not stable; over time radiocarbon atoms decay into nitrogen atoms.This tendency to decay, called radioactivity, is what gives radiocarbon the name radiocarbon.The atmosphere contains many stable carbon atoms and relatively few radiocarbon atoms.The percentage of Carbon 14 becomes extremely small and difficult to measure.Also any contamination of the sample can distort the calculation of the age when the percentage is small At 9 half lives only 1/512 of the Carbon 14 is left. Most fossils have no Carbon left in them and Carbon 14 and radioactive dating can not be used to date them.

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