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Since carbon is fundamental to life, occurring along with hydrogen in all organic compounds, the detection of such an isotope might form the basis for a method to establish the age of ancient materials.

Libby, a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Chicago, predicted that a radioactive isotope of carbon, known as carbon-14, would be found to occur in nature.

For an example, when they tried to get the carbon dating for presence of Aboriginal people in Australia they get to the number 40,000. Why is that 40,000 years limit for carbon dating methods?

Carbon-14 makes up about 1 part per trillion of the carbon atoms around us, and this proportion remains roughly constant due to continual production of carbon-14 from cosmic rays.

This is due to the fact that the AMS instrument has to be calibrated, and yet the organic materials used for calibration (that are supposed to be so old they shouldn't have any detectable radiocarbon left in them) all contain so much radiocarbon that it means samples of unknown age can't yield dates above this radiocarbon barrier.This discovery meant that there are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon: Whereas carbon-12 and carbon-13 are stable isotopes, carbon-14 is unstable or radioactive.Carbon-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays bombard nitrogen atoms. The other factor is what has become known as the "radiocarbon barrier" at around 55,000–60,000 years. The older beta counting instrument was stretched to get results of 50,000 years, whereas the AMS instrument should be effective up to 95,000 years.The ensuing atomic interactions create a steady supply of c14 that rapidly diffuses throughout the atmosphere.Plants take up c14 along with other carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in the proportions that occur in the atmosphere; animals acquire c14 by eating the plants (or other animals).So by measuring the C-14 level we work out how many half lives old the sample is and therefore how old it is.The trouble is that after 40,000 years there is under 1% of the original C-14 left, and it becomes too hard to measure it accurately.Working with several collaboraters, Libby established the natural occurrence of radiocarbon by detecting its radioactivity in methane from the Baltimore sewer.In contrast, methane made from petroleum products had no measurable radioactivity. G., The maximum theoretical age obtainable by radiocarbon dating depends on the instrument used to do the analyses.Theoretically, the AMS instrument should obtain ages up to 95,000 years, but practically, 60,000 years or less is the limit.Basically, it is correct to suggest 50,000–95,000 years.The former is the practical limit (based on the calibration materials presently used in radiocarbon labs), while the latter is the theoretical limit of the AMS instrument.




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